威斯康辛大学新闻

2021年12月15日

Despite cleaner air, pollution disparities for people of color remain across the US

而且

威斯康辛大学新闻

一张雾霾笼罩下的城市天际线照片

UW researchers investigated disparities in exposure to six major air pollutants in 1990, 2000 而且 2010 by comparing models of air pollution levels to census data.乔尔·穆尼斯/ Unsplash

空气污染与多种健康状况有关, 包括心脏病, 癌症和认知能力下降. These effects vary depending on the source of air pollution. 并不是每个人都暴露在糟糕的空气质量中.

华盛顿大学 researchers investigated disparities in exposure to six major air pollutants in 1990, 2000 而且 2010 by comparing models of air pollution levels to census data — including where people live, 他们的种族/民族背景和收入状况.

The team 显示 that while overall pollutant concentrations have decreased since 1990, people of color are still more likely to be exposed to all six pollutants than white people, 无论收入水平如何, 横跨美国大陆.

十大彩票平台官网人员 发表了这些结果 12月. 环境健康展望15.

“This is the first time anyone has looked comprehensively at all these main pollutants 而且 watched how they vary over time 而且 space,资深作者说道 朱利安•马歇尔他是华盛顿大学土木与环境工程教授. “这篇论文是认识到这一点的一个机会, 虽然每个社区都是独特的, there are some factors that play out over 而且 over again consistently across our country. If we go state by state, there’s no place where there are no environmental justice concerns.”

此前,十大彩票平台官网人员 显示 that Americans of color were exposed to higher concentrations of 二氧化氮 (NO2), an outdoor pollutant from cars 而且 trucks, in two census years: 2000 而且 2010.

Now the team has exp而且ed that research to look at five additional pollutants that are harmful to our health: 一氧化碳(CO), 臭氧 (O3), 二氧化硫 (二氧化硫)和 可吸入颗粒物 -都是较大的粒子, 如灰尘或花粉(PM10), 更小的粒子, 比如来自汽车尾气的分子(PM2.5). 除PM2外的所有污染物.5, the researchers also exp而且ed the census years studied to include 1990, 《清洁空气法 修订是为了解决空气污染和排放问题吗.

污染物的定义

 

“有很多改进,”主要作者说 Jiawen刘, UW doctoral student in civil 而且 environmental engineering. “But we still see these disparities persist, even after two decades.”

相关报道见 华盛顿邮报 而且 《卫报》.

获取每年的空气污染数据, the researchers used models that incorporate pollution estimates from multiple sources, including data from satellites 而且 环境保护局 monitoring stations. These levels were then mapped onto census demographic groups — including four race/ethnicity categories (Black, 亚洲, Hispanic 而且 white) 而且 income — to determine estimated exposure to each pollutant for each group across states in the contiguous U.S. 华盛顿特区.C.

For each location, the team calculated both absolute 而且 relative disparities. 对于绝对差异, the researchers subtracted pollution exposures for each group from the average exposure for the state. The team determined relative disparities by dividing the absolute disparity by the average exposure across the country.

“Relative disparities allow us to compare across pollutants,刘说。, 她也是华盛顿大学生物统计学硕士的学生. “每种污染物都有一个大致的接触范围, but when you divide by the average it gives you a basis for how big or small that exposure disparity is.”

差异因地区而异, 但对于所有的岁月和污染物, a racial/ethnic minority group had the highest level of exposure. This trend continued in 2010, despite cleaner air overall.这种方法有一个局限性, 十大彩票平台官网人员说, 污染模型反映的是全国平均水平吗, so they might not be as good at catching unusual pollution events in some communities.

“Essentially, our research is showing these disparities exist,” Liu said. “We’re trying to catch people’s attention 而且 show what is happening now. 十大彩票平台官网希望这一信息将推动变革.”

“十大彩票平台官网必须记录下来,”马歇尔补充道. “这在科学文献中可能是新的, but it is not new to the communities that are most impacted by air pollution. These communities have been saying this message for a long time. 在十大彩票平台官网的十大彩票平台官网中谦逊是很重要的.”

这篇论文的其他合著者是劳拉·克拉克, who completed this research as a UW civil 而且 environmental engineering postdoc; 马修Bechle, a UW postdoctoral researcher in civil 而且 environmental engineering; Anjum Hajat他是华盛顿大学流行病学副教授, 丽芬妮谢泼德, UW professor of environmental 而且 occupational health sciences as well as biostatistics; 亚当Szpiro华盛顿大学生物统计学副教授; 金暎, associate professor at the National Cancer Center-Graduate School of Cancer 科学 而且 Policy; 而且 艾伦·罗宾逊他是卡内基梅隆大学的教授. 本出版物是作为 空气、气候和能源解决方案中心, which was supported under an Assistance Agreement awarded by the U.S. 环境保护局.

欲了解更多信息,请通过 jdmarsh@uw.edu 刘在 lhae15@uw.edu.

授权号:R835873

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